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Types of AC Motors and Their Applications

By Susi | Published on Nov 02,2015
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Types of AC motors

Universal AC motor is equipped with a commutator motor which enables series DC generator used as an AC motor. The direction of moment of couple remains unchanged as alternating current deflects in magnetic field and armature circuit simultaneously. Therefore, the machine is rotating without stop. Such a motor can be used as either Ac or DC, so called universal motor. It is usually used in vacuum cleaners, sewing machines and other household appliances.

Synchronous AC motor cannot drive by itself, only being used with another special auxiliary winding motor to reach a certain frequency, can it be connected to AC. If the change of the load alters its rotational speed, it can lead to frequency incompatibity between the speed and alternating current, which is harmful enough to make the pace disorder, thus resulting in stop or damage. So the application is not wide due to its restrictions.

Induction AC motor, with the rotor in rotational magnetic field, is set to make rotor operates by the action of the eddy current. Rotating magnetic field is not formed in a mechanical way, but by circularly changing the nature of magnetic poles in alternating current as the alternating current gets through pairs of electromagnet, which can be seen as the rotating magnetic field. Typically three-phase induction motors which have three pairs of poles are widely used.

According to its working principle of AC motors, it can be classed into two major categories: asynchronous motor and synchronous motor. There is a strict corresponding relation between synchronous motor rotation speed and the frequency of the ac power source. In the operation, the speed of the synchronous motor remains unchanged constantly, while the speed of the asynchronous motor changes slightly as the load varies.

According to its different rotor structure, Three-phase asynchronous motor can also be typed into squirrel cage and winding type, of which the most widely used, is squirrel-cage.


Applications of AC motors

The application of the AC motor can be extensive. For example, the application of motors in washing machine, electrical tape recorders, as well as water pump, and the applications in industrial engineering: motor driven machine, such as lathes, grinders; applications in agriculture field, like water pump for drawing water, which is a submersible pump, the fountain motor used in large squares as well as the transmission equipment. Generally speaking, any equipment with a function of transmission needs a motor. I think the motor is a machine which needs electricity to operate, and its main role is able to move objects which usually cannot move by themselves. To put it simply, the motor is a device to convert electrical energy into mechanical energy. In the following, I will introduce the applications of different types of AC motors one by one.

1. Applications of Servo AC motors

Servo motors are widely used in various control systems. It can convert the inputted voltage signal into mechanical output of the motor shaft, dragging controlled objects so as to achieve its control function. Servo motors can be divided into DC and AC servo motors. The earliest servo motor is a regular DC motor. Only under the low control accuracy, is the general DC servo motor is adopted. The current DC servo motor, structurally, is a low-power DC motor and its excitation is mostly controlled by armature and magnetic, but usually controlled by armature.

2. Applications of Stepper AC motors

Stepper motors are used in the manufacture of numerically-controlled machine tool (CNC). Given that the stepping motor can directly converted a digital pulse signal into angular displacement without using A / D converter, so it has been considered the best CNC machine actuators. In addition to applications in CNC machine tool, stepper motors can also be used on other machines, such as an automatic feeder of the motor, a general floppy disk drive motor, the printer and plotter.

3. Applications of ac torque motor

AC torque motor is usually used in the textile industry and its working principle and structure is the same as the single-phase asynchronous motor.

4. Switched Reluctance Motor

Switched Reluctance Motor is a new variable speed motor. With extremely simple and robust structure, low cost, high speed performance, it is strong contender of the traditional control of the motor, with strong market potential.

5. Applications of Brushless DC motor

DC motor has a good speed performance, and is easy to start and capable of starting with load, etc. Therefore, the current application of the DC motor is still very widespread, especially after the appearance of SCR dc power supply.

6. Applications of DC motors

DC motor has a good speed performance, and is easy to start and capable of starting with load, etc. Therefore, the current application of the DC motor is still very widespread, especially after the appearance of SCR dc power supply.

7. Applications of Asynchronous AC motor

Asynchronous motor is simple in structure, manufacture, usage and maintenance, and it is provided with reliable operation, low mass, cost and other advantages. Induction motors are widely used in driven machine tools, pumps, blowers, compressors, crane hoisting equipment, mining machinery, light industrial machinery, agricultural machinery and other production machinery as well as the majority of industrial and agricultural machinery, household appliances and medical equipment, of which more applications of asynchronous motor in household appliances such as electric fans, refrigerators, air conditioners, vacuum cleaners and the like.

8. Applications of Synchronous AC motor

Synchronous motors are mainly used in large machinery, such as blowers, water pumps, ball mill, compressors, rolling mills as well as small, miniature instruments, or serve as control elements. The three-phase synchronous motor wherein is the principal part. In addition, you can use it as a phase modifier to transmit inductive or capacitive reactive power.

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